The first data about the occupation of Sepulveda refer to the II iron age, between the SS. V and II BC, when are documents the existence of an enclave urban (oppidum) arevaco (tribe celtiberian) in the Hill of Somosierra, to the West of the villa. This small city was the necropolis of incineration of La Picota.
At the beginning of century B.c., between 98 and 93 B.c., the upper Valley of the Duratón was conquered by the Roman consul Tito Didio, who had to evict the indigenous core of Sepulveda and found a new city in the neighboring place of the markets, alongside the Duratón (added village or neighborhood of Sepulveda), seven km away, where possibly the Confluentia of Ptolemy (2.6.55) is located. This new town centre administered and managed the high Valley of the Duratón territory up to the s. V d.C. From s. B.c. in Sepúlveda possibly only would develop a small village attached to the confluentiense territory, although nearby were several sanctuaries Roman rural, the Bonus Eventus in bridge Talcano, of Diana in cave Labrada and, perhaps, that of Eburianus in bridge Giriego.
With the Visigoth occupation, the town of Confluentia (Duratón) is only changing in a village, among the SS. V and VII d.C., to remain vacant in the s. VIII ad The remains of the necropolis of Duratón documented this stage. It is unknown if Sepulveda already established a first Visigothic population, from which the medieval nucleus would develop.
The village of Sepulveda is mentioned for the first time in the Chronicle of Alfonso III. These Chronicles refers to the depopulation of the same result of the raids of Alfonso I. In the year 940 is responsible for Fernán González, count of Castile, your restocking which stabilizes an area Christian beyond the Duero River. There is a legend which tells the struggle of Fernán González and the Muslim Mayor Abubad, this legend, transmitted by the Abbot of Arlanza, Fray Gonzalo de Arredondo, is reflected in the façade of the lamada "casa Moro". Fernán González gave immunity to Sepúlveda in his stocking.
In the year 979 Almanzor attempts to recover the villa without success but years later, in the 984 recovered, but the Spaniards would it lose in the year 984, and 986. In the year 1010 villa definitely passed into Christian hands to be taken by Sancho García, grandson of Fernán González.
The fuero de Sepúlveda was confirmed on several occasions. The oldest documentary testimony is the Latin of Alfonso VI of the year 1076. This immunity was the law in the Castilian Extremadura. Subsequently expanded and codified in 1300 he was awarded to other populations as Zaragoza and Teruel, and from Ucles, many populations of the order of Santiago.
The territory in which immunity was valid was not only the town of Sepúlveda, they stretched in what was defined as a community of Villa and land of Sepulveda, which still exists. This community comprises 37 municipalities.
In the year 1111 in lands of Sepulveda was the battle of Candespina (today Fresno de Cantespino) in which Alfonso I of Aragon and the count Enrique de Portugal fought and won to Doña Urraca, wife of Alfonso I of Aragon. This victory resulted in the independence of Portugal and the incorporation of Sepúlveda to the Aragonese Crown.
The Jews are expelled in 1468 and shortly after is recognized the sovereignty of the future Catholic Kings against Enrique IV of Castile.
Hoces del Río Duratón and Sepulveda in the background.
King Carlos III visit the villa in the 18th century giving a picture of his son Carlos IV at the age of 17 years to its town hall. This picture is exhibited at the plenary Hall of the Town Hall of the village.
During the Guerra of the independence is produced the action of Sepulveda, the only combat in which intervened the guard Imperial of Napoleon in all the war. This action pays off with a failure in the French weapons that fail to destroy the Spanish forces that first withdrawing toward Sepulveda and then, without being disturbed, to Segovia. Sepulveda action meant a delay of the advance of Napoleon to Madrid prior to the battle of Somosierra. Sepulveda was besieged by French troops and in its territory performed the Empecinado which was based in the caves of the Canyon of the Río Duratón.
In those wars Carlist was taken in 1838 by the general Gómez. In the Spanish Civil War of 1936 Sepúlveda remained beside the army raised against the Republic. He was put in command of the troops that controlled the passage through the port of Somosierra.6
In 1951, Sepulveda was declared historic-artistic whole.